Discussion
Let's night draw! What is the matter with darkness?
Image 1
[1] Night Drawing Event, Mile End, London, 2018 / Photo © by Lucy Parakhina

Intro

In an era in which new lighting technologies are reshaping our experience of the urban night, it has never been more important to understand the socially mediated and contested nature of our nocturnal lives. There is a growing recognition that developed cities are over-illuminated1,2,3. Movements like the International Dark-Sky Association4 strongly advocate for a discourse around light pollution, and a questioning of how much light we need at night. The problems of night illumination concern a range of disciplines. From astronomers to healthcare professionals, biologists and environmentalists, the present challenge of artificial light is far-reaching. It is no simple affair.

In what follows, I will expand the discourse on environmental aesthetics, addressing the symbolic and embodied experience of darkness in the urban night. Urban design and illumination shape the atmospheric experience of nocturnal space, creating contrast, lustre, darkness and shadows. How light is used, manifested and experienced in the practice of everyday life is likely to play a vital part in future habitat5,6. Luminosity is a dynamic social agent, acting through its relationship to people, places, architecture, and colour [Fig. 1]. 

This paper discusses what light at night does or can do. Firstly, I will give a brief overview of contemporary understanding of darkness in the urban sphere; secondly, I will approach the architecture of the urban night environment and its atmospheric experience; and thirdly, I will discuss the practice of drawing at night which is a part of my artistic work. Within this discussion, I propose new ways in which to re-envision the nocturnal land/cityscape in-situ.

The following is not an attempt to “canonize” or maintain the darkness in the city, nor to criticize urban modernity or celebrate natural darkness as an ideal for a healthy society. Instead, I wish to discuss visual-spatial impacts, aesthetics and characteristics of the urban night, in order to gain richer visual readings of, and participation in, the night space. The architect Peter Zumthor notes: “Sensing, smelling, touching, dreaming in the dark—that’s just not enough. We want to see. But how much light do people need to live? And how much darkness?”7

  1. Darkness in the Urban Nightscape

Image 2
[2] Night Drawing Event, Mile End, London, 2018 / Photo © by Lucy Parakhina

Why is darkness in the urban nightscape rather rare, particularly in developed metropoles? In London, for example, I can barely find darkness at night unless I go to parks where artificial light gets cut off by trees [Fig. 2]. Artificial urban illumination has a long history, stemming from moral and industrial roots and carries positive associations for making the urban night environment safer for much of society8. However, movements towards “dark” lighting schemes in the city are emerging. Darkening cities at night is promoted by the lighting designers Chris Lowe and Philip Rafael9, and has been addressed by the geographer Tim Edensor1,10,11, as well as by the scholars Joanne Entwistle and Don Slater12, and Mikkel Bille13. Our relationship with the dark remains challenging on many levels. The fear of darkness, also entitled “nyctophobia”, persists especially across the urban West14. This inclination towards illumination can be traced back to modernization, the main ideas of the Enlightenment, and bourgeois values14.

Light patterns are key to perceiving and making sense of one’s surrounding environment. To understand space, a spatial perspective on volume and texture constituted by different shades of light and darkness facilitates orientation, for example the perception of proximity and distance. Light in this understanding is also material, and it would be difficult to grasp space without light forms and spatial elements. “[S]hedding light on objects is about attributing perceptual form to the objects, and hence the social use of light is not as much on the object as it is for the object.”15. Thus, it can be assumed that the condition of light shapes the world and the way people relate to space. Taking this further, light can transform and manipulate space, thus changing the way people experience it. Light plays a major role when it comes to environmental understanding of our surroundings. Again, concerning urban illumination, the creation of night atmospheres is, beyond functionality, related to aesthetic values and social and political matters.

Darkness has long been maligned in urban spaces8. Numerous civilisations throughout history feared darkness and perceived it as a source of evil with demons filling the night air16. The development of the ability to have light at night facilitated the establishment of safety regulations and enabled better control over urban citizens. The aim to control darkness and “the nocturnal no-man’s-land” contained within it initiated the introduction of street lighting17. In European capitals, oil lanterns were initially installed, later followed by gas lighting, and today replaced by electrical light, with “smart cities” and LED technology being hailed as the future of lighting in outdoor areas6,18,19.

Hence, in a majority of cities today, the night sky is luminous. This does not necessarily mean that aesthetic dimensions of darkness are destroyed in the urban nightscape. However, a dark atmosphere may rarely be experienced in the public sphere, it calls for a re-orientation3. The aesthetic possibilities of a new urban nocturnal sublime need to be explored as unique characteristics of urban darkness and thus require a different conceptual framework3. Artificial light is, in many ways, essential for the urban apparatus to function at night. Conversely, designers like Lowe and Rafael20 claim that using and understanding darkness is vital in order to create spaces where emotive human experiences can take place.  Existing standards and the regulation of urban illumination are needed, but they also might be out of date and in need of rethinking20.

The ongoing process of arranging the world through light is an active component of social life in every culture21. Light not only has a technical, practical meaning but also a symbolic and moral one. In that sense, the light at night is also a sign with a function. By the same token, this light (artificial or not) is apparent as a signifier narrating the night. Light shapes space and the way we move, see, feel and anticipate events in it. Accordingly, light at night not only marks space visually and aesthetically, but also defines it socially and ecologically. Roland Barthes22 notes that the conflict that can exist in a city, for some planners at least, is between functional necessities and their semantic content. He gives, as an example, contemporary Rome, which manifests a conflict between the city’s functionalism and the history22.

Nightfall and darkness challenge cities and their inhabitants even today. The longstanding association of light with reason (thus enlightenment) and darkness with superstition and the irrational continues to hold23. The political status of the night becomes murky, even contradictory23. Elisabeth Bronfen notes that when sunlight
disappears, darkness performs the precondition for the creation of new worlds, whether benign or malignant. Nighttime is equally archaic and fragile: the night’s associations and meanings counterpose with working affair of a busy day, but because the night may extinguish the day it promises possibilities of change24.

From a modern Western perspective, light stands for comfort and efficiency, and even today, for safety. Although basic discomfort with darkness persists, it is questionable whether lighting at night prevents crime—several studies indicate that this is not per se the case2,25,26. Conversely, at present, bright light can also mark nocturnal spaces out as “dangerous” or “problematic”, for instance in the case of “functional” lighting on housing estates (regardless of whether they actually are dangerous or not)27. In a metropolis like London today darkness within certain socioeconomic areas can understood as a luxury that offers a reprieve of calm and peace from the sensory overload of urban life27.

In 1987 the lighting designer Roger Narboni28 established the practice of Light Urbanism,
researching the possibilities of nighttime lighting in cities. He claimed that the initial function of public lighting, which was to enable people to see and be seen, will gradually be challenged by the freedom that city dwellers are given to decide when and how their nearby nocturnal space may be illuminated28. Such a shift is palpable—for example, in 2012, the city of Rennes in France initiated a study of “dark infrastructure” in response to the residents’ demand for a darker nighttime environment28.  Bille and Sørensen13 describe other instances of changes to the light in night environments and studies on the “sociality of light” and how “lightscapes” are created. In December 2018, France passed a national law on light pollution29 and in May 2019 the UCL Urban Laboratory, based at University College London30 launched an international research project to understand how night spaces are produced and used by migrant communities in Europe. We need to widen this dialogue on how light is practised and inhabited.

  1. Urban Night Aesthetics and the Atmosphere

Image 3
[3] Night Drawing Event, Mile End, London, 2018 / Photo © by Lucy Parakhina

How do we sense light? Studies of visual spatial perception, phenomenology as well as awareness of environmental identity, go back to thinkers such as Debord31, Lynch32, Merleau-Ponty33 or Gibson34. Today, these questions remain relevant, even urgent. One aspect in the discourse includes analysis of the concept of “atmosphere” in space, widely discussed by Gernot Böhme35,36,37. The impression of the urban night environment within the perceiver is an essential part of understanding contemporary urban nighttime. Böhme’s38 theory of atmospheres and aesthetics notes that natural science alone is insufficient to the study of the human environment and its problems. The focus here is on the relationship between environmental design and the ways that we construct the in-between spaces, those sites not occupied by architecture but nevertheless shaped by it; the world of air and perceptible atmospheres39. [Fig. 3]

The access to, experience and mood of spatial night light conditions are inevitably linked with its visual/pictorial appearance. Thus, aesthetic viewpoints are essential and need to be considered to tackle environmental problems, and improve life in the city and urban ecology. When it comes to lighting the future night, it is also crucial to understand the atmospheric and aesthetic parameters of an urban “dim” night condition. In Böhme’s philosophy, atmospheres create significant connections between people and their surroundings; atmospheres thus relate to environmental quality and the human condition40. He insists that environments are experienced aesthetically, whether they are human or not, and that these experiences do not solely depend on “physiological or toxicological factors”41.

Darkness seems equally important to light in the practice of day-to-day activities. Intentional lighting of space (and conversely the creation of artificial darkness e.g. Elcott42, can evoke sensations, alter the scene, engage with the spectator, provide space for intimacy and imagination, create and communicate emotions. There are many examples of artists, from Caravaggio and Rembrandt to Eliasson, Kapoor, and Turrell—to mention only a few— exploring these qualities and effects of light, but far fewer examples exist of them being exploited in the architectural world. Hence, a philosophical and aesthetic take on exploring and envisioning the future of cities at night may encourage the incorporation of the positive aspects of dark3.

In attending to the conditions of urban lighting, I invite a speculative approach that enters the gaps between simulation and reality. I link light and its atmospheric conditions in urban night spaces with situated, fabricated settings we may experience in the theatre. Artificial darkness, for example, has been discussed in relation to a range of media and art forms42 but again its contribution to a spacious impression of urban nighttime has hardly been addressed. 

Darkness reduces visual information, stimulating our other senses and allowing us to appreciate our surroundings in a different manner and at a different pace43. Tanizaki’s44 work reminds us of an alternative form of living with light in the environment. In writing about Japan, he describes the natural omnipresence of gloominess within architectural interiors. Instead of banishing darkness, he accentuates the positive aspects of a dark atmosphere and insists on finding beauty in the shadows45

Recently, Chengdu (the capital of China’s southwestern Sichuan province) announced an ambitious plan to launch a “fake moon” to illuminate the night sky by 202046. The goal is to replace streetlights, with the rationale that electricity is expensive, and to promote the creation of a “dusk-like glow” that will be eight times brighter than the real moon. Its proponents claim the illumination should not affect animals’ routines46. It is not clear from any of the reports if this project is feasible, nor if it is less expensive than electricity—so far many concerns have been raised and the proposal contains several contractions47. However, this endeavour foreshadows further experiments with illuminating the urban night. This outlook stresses an environmental understanding of the visual, aesthetic components that have an impact on living space, impressions and perceptions within the everyday. 

  1. Night Drawing

The preliminary project “Night Drawing” is part of my own research and promises to question current viewing habits and to foster a more conscious engagement with environmental surroundings. The method foregrounds urban residents as both user and recipient of artificial outdoor lighting at night. By venturing into the urban nightscape and attempting to draw what we cannot see (or can only partially see), we can cultivate a more detailed understanding of perceptions of light and darkness. Such empirical studies of dwellers’ experiences of urban illumination are relatively rare. This project addresses our insufficient knowledge of urban residents’ opinions about and experience of urban light conditions48.

Image 4
[4] Night Drawing Event, Mile End, London, 2018 / Photo © by Lucy Parakhina

“Night Drawing” excursions are a field laboratory for the investigation of light at night, modes of perception, and metropolitan lifestyles. The Night Drawing sessions invite people of all ages, skill levels and backgrounds to participate in a material exploration of their sensory experience of the night [Fig. 4]. During the event I ask people to sketch the surrounding environment. The process questions boundaries of perception. “Since aesthetics is fugitive and sensual, and difficult to express verbally, a theoretical framework which allows a focus on synesthetic modes of perception can help researchers gain a richer understanding of how tacit, embodied knowing is generated in organizational contexts.”49. Before, during and after the drawing activity, I discuss the specific light and atmospheric condition of the space with the participants. The method works in two ways; the undertaking as such generates a material outcome, but the exercise is also social, engendering discussions of the experience of urban nightscapes. The image output is not the endpoint, but rather a visualisation of a process, to be used as a basis for a rethinking of the night light conditions that are taken for granted.

The procedure of “Night Drawing” opens up a dialogue on urban night illumination and questions how we might accommodate darkness in future outdoor lighting schemes. The undertaking is site-specific and collective, bringing new experiences and different perspectives to bear on the topic. Entwistle and Slater12 stress that an approach to public lighting should not hide the technical or aesthetic behind social practices; it must also work through a knowledge of the material properties of light as they are understood by designers to structure a social space.

Drawing after dusk relies on unconventional observational skills and sensitivity, as well as a collective imagination, requiring a speculative engagement with urban night spaces—to think, invent and visualize alternatives to the present. The locations of the event present limited visibility, thereby enhancing other (non-visual) sensory perceptions of time and space. [Fig. 5]. As shown earlier, it is rare to experience complete darkness in the urban sphere. Engaging the dimly lit spatial night experience could engender personal encounters with the ungraspable aesthetic atmosphere of different light conditions. 

Image 5
[5] Night Drawing Event, Mile End, London, 2018 / Photo © by Lucy Parakhina

Juxtaposing conventional narratives of the night with the actual experience of it on site, the events reveal the ways in which present understandings of the night are rendered symbolic. In the process of making drawings at night, the night is further perceived as an atmosphere. This understands light conditions as material, with a given texture and weight like Will Straw23 puts it, “a substance which ‘falls’ upon the city”. I attempt to scrutinize urban night conditions as worlds and territories imbued with aesthetics and atmospheres50

“Night Drawing” is one (material and practical) approach to investigating perceptions, interpretations, relationships to and experiences within the urban space and the urban light. Questions about how much brightness and darkness urban night spaces require are not easy to answer and remain challenging not only for urban planners but also for urban dwellers. The matter needs to be studied further and will demand more investigations by various methods across different disciplines.

Conclusion

As shown, an understanding of the light at night beyond its utilitarian purpose is crucial if we are to understand present urban developments, their environmental impacts and imagine future lively habitats. In all this hustle, we should not neglect urban atmospheric and aesthetic experiences, nor should we foreground design at the expense of lived experience, lament a loss of nature or underestimate political mechanisms. 

Through “Night Drawing” people explore not simply their surrounding environment but the atmospheres it creates: the process of visual translation requires the imaginary within the real and creates alternative forms of visual transcriptions, expressions and representations. The attempt proposes new visions for urban nightscapes and may contribute to envisioning cities at night differently. In doing so, we can start to contemplate if, and how, the “dark” can be brought into the city.

Analysing nocturnal light using visual methods presents us with the possibility of not only understanding, but transforming and manipulating urban spatial experiences. This has the potential to open up new perspectives and enable paradigm shifts in our relationship to darkness. Aesthetic experiences can reinforce and cultivate environmental values3—an urban, nocturnal sublime that incorporates the positive aspects of dark skies into city nightscapes3. We have seen that light at night can stage atmospheres, and engender modes of sensory experience in space. This view forces us to consider and further investigate how people connect with and experience the urban night.

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Lucy Parakhina and Macushla Robinson for their helpful comments and edits throughout the text. Of course, all errors and omissions remain my own. Also, a big thank you goes to all the “Night Drawing” participants.

References

  1. Edensor, T. (2017) From light to dark: daylight, illumination, and gloom. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

  2. Slater, D. (2017) ‘How lighting affects the way we perceive, use and live in our communities is at the heart of the Configuring Light research programme’, The lighting journal, 82(2), pp. 30–33.

  3. Stone, T. (2018) ‘Re-envisioning the Nocturnal Sublime: On the Ethics and Aesthetics of Nighttime Lighting’, Topoi. doi: 10.1007/s11245-018-9562-4.

  4. darksky.org (2016) IDA, IDA Light Pollution. Available at: http://www.darksky.org/light-pollution/ (Accessed: 22 February 2018).

  5. Bille, M. (2019) Homely atmospheres and lighting technologies in Denmark: living with light. London ; New York: Bloomsbury Academic (Home, 11).

  6. Schulte-Römer, N. et al. (2019) ‘Lighting Professionals versus Light Pollution Experts? Investigating Views on an Emerging Environmental Concern’, Sustainability, 11(6), pp. 1–20. doi: 10.3390/su11061696.

  7. Zumthor, P. (2006) Thinking architecture. Basel ; Boston: Birkhäuser. pp. 90

  8. Schivelbusch, W. (1995) Disenchanted night: the industrialization of light in the nineteenth century. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  9. Lowe, C. and Rafael, P. (2011) ‘Light design – The Dark Art’, Professional Lighting Design, (79), pp. 24–29.

  10. Edensor, T. (2013) ‘Reconnecting with darkness: gloomy landscapes, lightless places’, Social & Cultural Geography, 14(4), pp. 446–465. doi: 10.1080/14649365.2013.790992.

  11. Edensor, T. (2015) ‘The gloomy city: Rethinking the relationship between light and dark’, Urban Studies, 52(3), pp. 422–438. doi: 10.1177/0042098013504009.

  12. Entwistle, J. and Slater, D. (2018) ‘Light as material/lighting as practice: urban lighting and energy’, Science Museum Group Journal, 9(9). doi: 10.15180/180906.

  13. Bille, M. and Sørensen, T. F. (2007) ‘An Anthropology of Luminosity: The Agency of Light’, Journal of Material Culture, 12(3), pp. 263–284. doi: 10.1177/1359183507081894.

  14. Edensor, T. (2013) p. 1, p. 14

  15. Bille, M. and Sørensen, T. F. (2007) p. 270

  16. Ekirch, A. R. (2006) At days close - a history of nighttime. London: Phoenix. pp. 22-23

  17. Schivelbusch, W. (1995) pp. 82-88

  18. Carrington, D. (2013) Tvilight: The ‘talking’ streetlamps that will lighten your heart (but not your wallet), CNN. Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2013/07/18/tech/innovation/tvilight-street-lamps-roosegarde/ (Accessed: 18 October 2018).

  19. Woods, E. (2018) From Connected Street Lights To Smart Cities, Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/pikeresearch/2018/04/06/smart-cities/ (Accessed: 21 June 2019).

  20. Lowe, C. and Rafael, P. (2011) p. 29

  21. Bille, M. and Sørensen, T. F. (2007) p. 280

  22. Barthes, R. (1986) ‘Semiology and the Urban’, in Gottdiener, M. and Lagopoulos, A. P. (eds) The City and the Sign: An Introduction to Urban Semiotics. New York: Columbia University Press, p. 91

  23. Straw, W. (2015) ‘Chrono-Urbanism and Single-Night Narratives in Film’, Film Studies, 12(1), pp. 46–56. doi: 10.7227/FS.12.0006.

  24. Bronfen, E. (2013) Night passages: philosophy, literature, and film. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 350

  25. Riggs, M. (2014) Street Lights and Crime: A Seemingly Endless Debate, CityLab. Available at: http://www.theatlanticcities.com/housing/2014/02/street-lights-and-crime-seemingly-endless-debate/8359/ (Accessed: 17 October 2018).

  26. Petrusich, A. (2016) ‘Fear of the light: why we need darkness’, The Guardian, 23 August. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/aug/23/why-we-need-darkness-light-pollution-stars (Accessed: 3 April 2019).

  27. Slater, D. (2017) p. 31

  28. Narboni, R. (2017) Imagining The Future of the City At Night, Architectural Lighting. Available at: http://www.archlighting.com/projects/imagining-the-future-of-the-city-at-night_o (Accessed: 28 April 2018).

  29. Barentine, J. (2019) France Adopts National Light Pollution Policy Among Most Progressive In The World, International Dark-Sky Association. Available at: https://www.darksky.org/france-light-pollution-law-2018/ (Accessed: 23 August 2019).

  30. UCL (2019) Night spaces: migration, culture and Integration in Europe, UCL Urban Laboratory. Available at: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/urban-lab/research/research-projects/night-spaces-migration-culture-and-integration-europe (Accessed: 22 August 2019).

  31. Debord, G. (2005) The society of the spectacle. London: Rebel Press.

  32. Lynch, K. (2005) The image of the city. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT PRESS.

  33. Merleau-Ponty, M. (2005) Phenomenology of perception. Translated by C. Smith. London: Routledge.

  34. Gibson, J. J. (2015) The ecological approach to visual perception. New York, London: Psychology Press.

  35. Böhme, G. (2000) ‘Acoustic atmospheres: a contribution to the study of ecological aesthetics’, Soundscape, 1, pp. 14–18.

  36. Böhme, G. (2014) Atmosphäre: Essays zur neuen Ästhetik. Berlin: Suhrkamp.

  37. Böhme, G. (2017) Atmospheric Architectures: The Aesthetics of Felt Spaces. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

  38. Böhme, G. (2017) p. 134

  39. Thibaud, J.-P. (2011) ‘The Sensory Fabric of Urban Ambiances’, The Senses and Society, 6(2), pp. 203–215. doi: 10.2752/174589311X12961584845846.

  40. Böhme, G. (2014) p. 119

  41. Böhme, G. (2000) p. 14

  42. Elcott, N. M. (2016) Artificial darkness: an obscure history of modern art and media. Chicago ; London: University of Chicago Press.

  43. Lowe, C. and Rafael, P. (2011) p. 27

  44. Tanizaki, J. (2001) In praise of shadows. London: Vintage Books.

  45. Tanizaki, J. (2001) p. 46

  46. BBC News (2018) ‘Could China really launch a “fake moon”?’, BBC News, 20 October. Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-45910479 (Accessed: 16 September 2019).

  47. Hitti, N. (2018) Chengdu plans to launch ‘artificial moon’ to replace its street lights, Dezeen. Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2018/10/19/artificial-moon-illumination-satellite-chengdu-china-technology/ (Accessed: 3 December 2018).

  48. Besecke, A. and Hänsch, R. (2015) ‘Residents’ Perceptions of Light and Darkness’, in Urban Lighting, Light Pollution and Society. New York: Routledge.

  49. Biehl-Missal, B. (2013) ‘The atmosphere of the image: an aesthetic concept for visual analysis’, Consumption Markets & Culture, 16(4), p. 365. doi: 10.1080/10253866.2012.668369.

  50. Galinier, J. et al. (2010) ‘Anthropology of the Night: Cross-Disciplinary Investigations’, Current Anthropology, 51(6), pp. 819–847. doi: 10.1086/653691.

Reference List

Barentine, J. (2019) France Adopts National Light Pollution Policy Among Most Progressive In The World, International Dark-Sky Association. Available at: https://www.darksky.org/france-light-pollution-law-2018/ (Accessed: 23 August 2019).

Barthes, R. (1986) ‘Semiology and the Urban’, in Gottdiener, M. and Lagopoulos, A. P. (eds) The City and the Sign: An Introduction to Urban Semiotics. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 87–98.

BBC News (2018) ‘Could China really launch a “fake moon”?’, BBC News, 20 October. Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-45910479 (Accessed: 16 September 2019).

Besecke, A. and Hänsch, R. (2015) ‘Residents’ Perceptions of Light and Darkness’, in Urban Lighting, Light Pollution and Society. New York: Routledge.

Biehl-Missal, B. (2013) ‘The atmosphere of the image: an aesthetic concept for visual analysis’, Consumption Markets & Culture, 16(4), pp. 356–367. doi: 10.1080/10253866.2012.668369.

Bille, M. (2019) Homely atmospheres and lighting technologies in Denmark: living with light. London ; New York: Bloomsbury Academic (Home, 11).

Bille, M. and Sørensen, T. F. (2007) ‘An Anthropology of Luminosity: The Agency of Light’, Journal of Material Culture, 12(3), pp. 263–284. doi: 10.1177/1359183507081894.

Böhme, G. (2000) ‘Acoustic atmospheres: a contribution to the study of ecological aesthetics’, Soundscape, 1, pp. 14–18.

Böhme, G. (2014) Atmosphäre: Essays zur neuen Ästhetik. Berlin: Suhrkamp.

Böhme, G. (2017) Atmospheric Architectures: The Aesthetics of Felt Spaces. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Bronfen, E. (2013) Night passages: philosophy, literature, and film. New York: Columbia University Press.

Carrington, D. (2013) Tvilight: The ‘talking’ streetlamps that will lighten your heart (but not your wallet), CNN. Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2013/07/18/tech/innovation/tvilight-street-lamps-roosegarde/ (Accessed: 18 October 2018).

darksky.org (2016) IDA, IDA Light Pollution. Available at: http://www.darksky.org/light-pollution/ (Accessed: 22 February 2018).

Debord, G. (2005) The society of the spectacle. London: Rebel Press.

Edensor, T. (2013) ‘Reconnecting with darkness: gloomy landscapes, lightless places’, Social & Cultural Geography, 14(4), pp. 446–465. doi: 10.1080/14649365.2013.790992.

Edensor, T. (2015) ‘The gloomy city: Rethinking the relationship between light and dark’, Urban Studies, 52(3), pp. 422–438. doi: 10.1177/0042098013504009.

Edensor, T. (2017) From light to dark: daylight, illumination, and gloom. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Ekirch, A. R. (2006) At days close - a history of nighttime. London: Phoenix.

Elcott, N. M. (2016) Artificial darkness: an obscure history of modern art and media. Chicago ; London: University of Chicago Press.

Entwistle, J. and Slater, D. (2018) ‘Light as material/lighting as practice: urban lighting and energy’, Science Museum Group Journal, 9(9). doi: 10.15180/180906.

Galinier, J. et al. (2010) ‘Anthropology of the Night: Cross-Disciplinary Investigations’, Current Anthropology, 51(6), pp. 819–847. doi: 10.1086/653691.

Gibson, J. J. (2015) The ecological approach to visual perception. New York, London: Psychology Press.

Hitti, N. (2018) Chengdu plans to launch ‘artificial moon’ to replace its street lights, Dezeen. Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2018/10/19/artificial-moon-illumination-satellite-chengdu-china-technology/ (Accessed: 3 December 2018).

Lowe, C. and Rafael, P. (2011) ‘Light design – The Dark Art’, Professional Lighting Design, (79), pp. 24–29.

Lynch, K. (2005) The image of the city. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT PRESS.

Merleau-Ponty, M. (2005) Phenomenology of perception. Translated by C. Smith. London: Routledge.

Narboni, R. (2017) Imagining The Future of the City At Night, Architectural Lighting. Available at: http://www.archlighting.com/projects/imagining-the-future-of-the-city-at-night_o (Accessed: 28 April 2018).

Petrusich, A. (2016) ‘Fear of the light: why we need darkness’, The Guardian, 23 August. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/aug/23/why-we-need-darkness-light-pollution-stars (Accessed: 3 April 2019).

Riggs, M. (2014) Street Lights and Crime: A Seemingly Endless Debate, CityLab. Available at: http://www.theatlanticcities.com/housing/2014/02/street-lights-and-crime-seemingly-endless-debate/8359/ (Accessed: 17 October 2018).

Schivelbusch, W. (1995) Disenchanted night: the industrialization of light in the nineteenth century. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Schulte-Römer, N. et al. (2019) ‘Lighting Professionals versus Light Pollution Experts? Investigating Views on an Emerging Environmental Concern’, Sustainability, 11(6), pp. 1–20. doi: 10.3390/su11061696.

Slater, D. (2017) ‘How lighting affects the way we perceive, use and live in our communities is at the heart of the Configuring Light research programme’, The lighting journal, 82(2), pp. 30–33.

Stone, T. (2018) ‘Re-envisioning the Nocturnal Sublime: On the Ethics and Aesthetics of Nighttime Lighting’, Topoi. doi: 10.1007/s11245-018-9562-4.

Straw, W. (2015) ‘Chrono-Urbanism and Single-Night Narratives in Film’, Film Studies, 12(1), pp. 46–56. doi: 10.7227/FS.12.0006.

Tanizaki, J. (2001) In praise of shadows. London: Vintage Books.

Thibaud, J.-P. (2011) ‘The Sensory Fabric of Urban Ambiances’, The Senses and Society, 6(2), pp. 203–215. doi: 10.2752/174589311X12961584845846.

UCL (2019) Night spaces: migration, culture and Integration in Europe, UCL Urban Laboratory. Available at: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/urban-lab/research/research-projects/night-spaces-migration-culture-and-integration-europe (Accessed: 22 August 2019).

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